因其处于高原生态食物链的顶端,雪豹亦被人们称为“高海拔生态系统健康与否的气压计”而由于非法捕猎等多种人为因素,雪豹的数量正急剧减少。
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青藏高原三江源地区人与雪豹之间的冲突

项目负责人:李娟,尹杭,王大军,加贡扎拉,吕植
Human-snow leopard conflicts in the Sanjiangyuan Region of the Tibetan Plateau


Juan Lia, b, Hang Yinc, Dajun Wanga, Zhala Jiagongc, Zhi Lu


Abstract:


  Conflicts between humans and snow leopards are documented across much of their overlapping distribution in Central Asia. These conflicts manifest themselves primarily in the form of livestock depredation and the killing of snow leopards by local herders. This source of mortality to snow leopards is a key conservation concern. To investigate human-snow leopard conflicts in the Sanjiangyuan Region of the Tibetan Plateau, we conducted household interviews about local herders’ traditional use of snow leopard parts, livestock depredation, and overall attitudes towards snow leopards. We found most respondents (58%) knew that snow leopard parts had been used for traditional customs in the past, but they claimed not in the past two or three decades. It may be partly due to the issuing of the Protection of Wildlife Law in 1998 by the People’s Republic of China. Total livestock losses were damaging (US$ 6193 per household in the past 1 year), however snow leopards were blamed by herders for only a small proportion of those losses (10%), as compared to wolves (45%) and disease (42%). Correspondingly, the cultural images of snow leopards were neutral (78%) and positive (9%) on the whole. It seems that human-snow leopard conflict is not intense in this area. However, snow leopards could be implicated by the retaliatory killing of wolves. We recommend a multi-pronged conservation program that includes compensation, insurance programs, and training local veterinarians to reduce livestock losses.

青藏高原三江源地区人与雪豹之间的冲突


李娟,尹杭,王大军,加贡扎拉,吕植


摘要:


  在人与雪豹分布有重叠的地区都有记录到他们之间的冲突,即雪豹捕食家畜和当地牧民对雪豹进行报复性猎杀。这也是雪豹保护中的重要问题。为了了解青藏高原三江源地区人与雪豹的冲突情况,我们访谈了当地牧民对雪豹的传统利用、家畜损失以及对雪豹的态度。我们发现,大部分受访者(58%)知道雪豹的皮毛骨头在传统上的利用价值,但也同时表明这种利用在二三十年前就已停止。部分原因可能是因为中国在1998年颁布了《野生动物保护法》。家畜损失的情况很严重(过去的1年内户均损失6193美元),但牧民认为雪豹造成的损失只占其中的一小部分(10%)。最主要的损失来自于狼的捕食(45%)和家畜的疾病(42%)。相应地,雪豹的文化形象总体上是中性的(78%)或者正面的(9%)。这样看来该区域内人与雪豹的冲突似乎并不严重,但雪豹还有可能因牧民对狼的报复性猎杀而牵连受害。因此,我们建议要减少人与雪豹之间的冲突应该同时采取多种保护措施,包括野生动物肇事赔偿、家畜保险以及培训当地兽医来减少家畜的损失。



原文地址  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320713002061